iran

Iran, also known as Persia, is the 18th largest country in the world in terms of area at 1,648,195 km. Iran has a population of over 77 million. Tehran is the capital and the largest city, serving as the cultural, commercial, and industrial center of the nation. Iran is a county in southwest Asian, country of mountains and deserts. Eastern Iran is dominated by a high plateau, with large salt flats and vast sand deserts. The plateau is surrounded by even higher mountains, including the Zagros to the west and the Elburz to the north. Its neighbors are Turkmenistan, Azerbaijan and Armenia on the north, Afghanistan and Pakistan on the east, and Turkey and Iraq on the west. Iran holds an important position in international energy security and world economy as a result of its large reserves of petroleum and natural gas.

Name of the country: Islamic Republic of Iran 
National Slogan: Independence, Freedom, Islamic Republic 
Capital: Tehran 
Geographical condition: 35 41 N 51 25 E 
Language: Persian (Farsi) 
Although a variety of unofficial languages are spoken, roughly 99% of the population understand and speak Persian. 
Religion: Islam 
Exports: oil, carpet, fruits, pistachios and dry fruits (raisins and dates), leather, caviar, petrochemical products, apparels and dresses, foodstuffs. 
Imports: machineries, industrial metals, medicines, chemical derivatives. 
Industries: oil, petrochemical, textile, cement and other materials for building construction, food derivatives (especially refining sugar and extracting edible oil). 
Agriculture: wheat, rice, grains, fruits, pistachios and oily seeds such as, almond, walnut, cotton. 
Transportation: 7286 kilometers of railways and 158000 kilometers of roads. 
Pipelines: oil derivatives 3900 kilometer, natural gas 4550 kilometer. 
Ports: Abadan, Ahwaz, Shahid Beheshti port, Abbas port, Anzali port, Bushehr port, Imam Khomeini port, Mahshahr port, Turkman port, Khoramshahr, Noshahr, etc.

 

HISTORY

Recent archaeological studies indicate that as early as 10,000 BC, people lived on the southern shores of the Caspian, one of the few regions of the world which according to scientists escaped the Ice Age. They were probably the first men in the history of mankind to engage in agriculture and animal husbandry.

 

Culture

Iranian culture has long been a predominant culture of the Middle East and Central Asia, with Persian considered the language of intellectuals during much of the 2nd millennium, and the language of religion and the populace before that. The Sassanid influence carried forward to the Islamic world. Much of what later became known as Islamic learning, such as philology, literature, jurisprudence, philosophy, medicine, architecture and the sciences were based on some of the practices taken from the Sassanid Persians to the broader Muslim world.

 

Language 

Official language (of Iran) is Persian. Persian serves as a lingua franca in Iran and most publications and broadcastings are in this language.

Next to Persian, there are many publications and broadcastings in other relatively popular languages of Iran such as Azeri, Kurdish and even in less popular ones such as Arabic and Armenian. Many languages originated in Iran, but Persian is the most used language. Persian belongs to Iranian branch of the Indo-European family of languages. The oldest records in Old Persian date to the Achaemenid Empire, and examples of Old Persian have been found in present-day Iran, Iraq, Turkey and Egypt. Persian is spoken today primarily in Iran, Afghanistan and Tajikistan, but was historically a more widely understood language in an area ranging from the Middle East to India, significant populations of speakers in other Persian Gulf countries, as well as large communities around the World. 

Persian, until recent centuries, was culturally and historically one of the most prominent languages of the Middle East and regions beyond.

Persian scholars were prominent in both Turkish and Indian courts during the fifteenth to eighteenth centuries in composing dictionaries and grammatical works. A Persian Indian vernacular developed and many colonial British officers learned their Persian from Indian scribes. 
The name of the modern Persian language is sometimes mentioned as Farsi in English texts.